The data requirements for an individual project will not be unique for a single project but will be established from your Organisation Information Requirements (OIR), a term from PAS 1192-3.
Here we will focus specifically on the model data requirements.
We will not identify the specific nature or detail of the data. But the data purposes and the types of data that will be required to meet a purpose.
Establishing your organisational data requirement from scratch will not be easy and it’s a task that will never be complete. An organisation’s data needs and uses will continually evolve as your data maturity increases and new technology becomes available.
You will have many different uses for facility and estates data within your different departments. Your space planning department will have detailed information on staff and student numbers, together with timetabling and space information. Your maintenance team will have information on equipment that requires regular replacement or servicing. And your strategic planning team will have information on anticipated future needs and the condition of the buildings within your estate.
To fully establish your organisational data requirements you will need to involve all your departments. They will all have their own and unique data needs and requirements. Many of which they will be unable to articulate without detailed discussions.
A useful starting point is to use an established set of data purposes. BS 1192-4 provides one such list. These are referred to as Employer Purposes, we have looked at employer purposes in a previous post, however, here we go into more detail and provide more information.
There are 11 different employer purposes and they are distributed throughout three separate sections within part 5 of the standard.
Employer purposes provide a focus on obtaining data for a particular purpose. You have a specific need and you obtain data to fulfil your need, rather than obtaining data in anticipation of needs. Data has a cost, obtaining data from your supply chain will have a cost and maintaining your data will have a cost. You need to be very specific on the data you are going to obtain and the reason (the purpose) for the data.
There are other sources to use as starting point for developing your estate’s data requirements, such as PAS 1192-3. But, the 11 employer purposes cover most of the common operational phase data uses and keep the list focused and concise, which is especially useful in the early stages of developing your data requirements.
Employer purposes focus on data for use during the operational phase of your asset, the data that you will use whilst your building is in use. You should also consider data that will be of use during the design and delivery phase. This isn’t specific to data useful to contractors during construction, although a well developed and quality checked model will be useful to all project stakeholders. But, includes data that enable you to track build costs, risks and design development.
The cost of maintaining data is often overlooked or underestimated. Practically every physical asset requires maintenance of some form, whether that is planned maintenance, reactive maintenance, upgrading or planned replacement an asset will not remain useful if it has not been maintained. If you don’t maintain your physical assets they will become damaged, irreparable or just obsolete. If you apply this principle to your house, a house over many many years if not maintained will eventually decay and crumble. But, if well maintained your house will be your home and the home for many families for potentially centuries.
This maintenance principle applies beyond physical assets into non-physical assets such as data. Your data will require maintenance. Data from the ‘90s if not maintained will have been kept on data storage devices that are no longer supported. The format of the data may become obsolete, commercial organisations provide support for their software applications for a limited time. And the detail of the data itself will most likely also require constant updating (or maintenance). A register of employees will need to be updated as employees join and leave an organisation.
Organisations are beginning to consider data as a valuable asset similar to any of their physical assets. Individuals or teams are being employed as data or information managers to ensure the governance and long-term reliability of their valuable data.
When considering your organisational employer purposes, don’t just focus on what you need, also consider what you don’t need and the reasons why you will not require data. This promotes ownership of the decisions by ensuring that reasons for collecting information and equally reasons why information is not required are fully considered.
It’s useful to understand each of the employer purposes in detail. They will provide you will the language to articulate some of the key potential data uses to your team.
“Register of assets to support accurate auditing and reporting” – BS 1192-4
Register is the very starting point of collecting facility data. If you require any type of asset data you will require a register of your assets. The register employer purpose is mandatory if any of the other employer purposed apply to your organisation.
“A register of assets should be provided to support accurate auditing and reporting. This should include both spatial and physical assets and their groupings.”
The register of assets should include items such as light fittings and air handling units. The register of assets should also include spaces (rooms), floors and the facility itself.
“Every named inside or outside Space (location) should be documented along with every distinct Floor (region) containing them. The Zones defining public/private access should be documented, along with other Zones as required.”
Zones are useful for grouping together similar spaces or spaces used for a particular purpose. All classroom spaces can be grouped into a classroom zone. Zones can also overlap. All the spaces for an English department can be contained within their own zone, which will include departmental classrooms and admin spaces. The classrooms can also be contained within a classroom zone, along with all the other classrooms within a zone. Similar to a Venn diagram, English department rooms are in a zone, classrooms are in another zone, with English department classrooms in an overlapping area.
“Every manageable Component should be documented along with every distinct functional System whether containing manageable Components or not, and every distinct product Type defining the manageable Components including both generic and specific product and materials.”
Manageable components are assets that will require some form of management. This usually involves planned and preventative maintenance by your maintenance team. But, could also be assets that are used for monitoring such as access control items (if they require some form of management).
The concept of manageable components is really useful when considering the data that you want to be collected. Not every component within a facility will require data. A concrete column will not generally require any form of maintenance during the life of a facility. If something will not require maintaining why do to the expense and trouble of collecting and maintaining such information. It’s a common approach to exclude data within your final delivered dataset for all assets that do not require data. Registering all assets can result in unnecessarily large data sets. Data that will require managing and maintenance throughout the life of a facility
All registered assets will require classifying or grouping. Classifying components or assets provide an effective way of grouping similar items. By classifying you avoid depending upon consistent naming as a way of searching or locating similar types of assets. Classifications also extend to the facility as a whole, you can apply a classification to the type of facility. To the use of spaces and grouping of individual components into connected or interrelated systems.
The data that should be provided for each employer purpose is not explicitly prescribed and neither should it be, there needs to be some flexibility to ensure that the data meets your needs. Links to typical schedules and data types have been provided at the end of this chapter.
However, there are some general rules and data that will normally be required for this purpose.
As standard Names, Classifications and Descriptions should be provided for your facility, the floors, zones, all spaces, systems and assets.
The remaining items of data that can be provided to satisfy your requirement to obtain a register of your facility and assets become more subjective based upon your specific data uses.
Additional data for your facility can include, global location data such as coordinates and the address.
For each floor, you might require data such as the height of the floor above a standard baseline (such as the level at the main entrance) and the clear height for each floor, excluding installations such as building services and ceilings (as this detail can be included for each individual space).
Zones consist of a collection of spaces. So for a zone to be any use you will need the standard items listed above, zone names, description of the zones and a classification of the group. Each relevant space will be assigned to a zone.
Spaces will need to include that standard name, description and classification attributes. There’s a large amount of useful information that can be added to each individual space. But, for the purpose of providing a register of the space, it’s usually limited to having net and gross floor areas, together with the clear height within the room. The clear height will depend upon the finishes within a space. For those without ceilings the clear height should be calculated to the underside of the lowest building service within the space, but where ceilings or ceiling rafts are the lowest fixed element these should form the basis of the clear height dimension.
The areas and clear height dimensions should all be calculated directly from the model, not from manual dimensions. And should the installed dimensions be different from the designed then the model should be updated to represent the actual installation. Don’t start fudging the information, it tends to lead to more and more fixes, which will lead to questions about the validity of your data.
Systems comprise of a group of components that may be connected together. The components that make up a building’s mechanical ventilation can be grouped together into a system. Often systems such as mechanical ventilation will be sub-grouped to provide additional information, which is useful for managing the facility.
It’s also possible to group components that do not form a continuous system, these tend to be the non-building services components such as doors and windows. However, the benefits to linking such components are more limited, especially when considering that classification of components provides an equally effective way of grouping components.
As with zones, systems will tend to use just the standard data requirements. Each system will have a unique name, a description and a classification.
Individual assets are also referred to as components. Each individual component will also have a type. Types provide enable common component information to be grouped together. So some doors within a facility could be grouped together as a type 1. A type 1 door could be a 30 minute fire door, single swing, 2110 x 910mm. This information (including other data such as the manufacturer) will all be contained within the ‘type’. The individual occurrence will contain more limited data such as the location of the door and unique references.
Therefore, for an asset, register information will contain the standard unique name, description and classification data. Asset register data will often include additional attributes such as asset type (fixed or loose), dimensional data, outline products data (such as colour and finish), dimensions and manufacturer and product number or references.
“The employer should specify if information is required to support the evaluation of the business case for ownership and operation of the Facility. This should include continuous development of the Impacts and of the beneficial aspects of the Facility from the earliest deliverable onwards.”
The business case for the ownership and operation of a facility can be evaluated from the earliest stages of design through to ongoing evaluation during the operational phase. As detailed information becomes available, the additional information is included in the evaluation, providing greater certainty and reassurance. The business case should be evaluated throughout the life of the facility. With updated information that could include energy costs, maintenance costs and rental rates.
This purpose is all about structuring and obtaining data to provide objective information for the business case of your facility. There will clearly be a need for such data during the design phase of a project, it’s important to assess the ongoing project budgets and compare these to the original budgets that formed the original business case. But, business case assessments should also continue through to the operational phase of a facility. It’s important to assess when a facility no longer provides value for money and your operations can be better served through a new replacement building. At some point, the negatives of an older facility due to unplanned reactive maintenance, replacement of individual assets and systems, inefficient systems and an outdated design that no longer serves the intended functions will outweigh the investment costs and outcomes of a new facility.
Having this data readily available will make the continual assessment of your facilities a possibility. The task could also be automated or semi-automated providing a regular report classifying and ranking your facilities based on value for money.
What type of data is required to assist in making business case decisions? The data here can be wide and varied depending on the inputs required to make your business case.
Many business case questions are based on floor areas and useable areas, such as the space provided per user or per department and comparisons of useable and ancillary spaces. For these types of question, much of the data collected for the register will be useful. Floor areas, net and gross, are provided through the combination of individual spaces and spaces can be grouped by type, department, faculty, business unit (or any other required grouping) through classifications and zones. Additional information on the usage of space can include occupancy and utilisation, with this data associated with the individual spaces.
Business case data also links back to costs, such as actual ongoing costs or predicted future costs. Ongoing costs such as energy usage, cleaning costs and rents. And future costs such as planned maintenance, replacement of assets as they reach their end of life and increases in ongoing costs (due to inflation, legislation and supply and demand).
Your model can include asset data such as anticipated life, replacement costs and a programme of planned maintenance activities. Providing an objective measure of the costs of maintaining assets within your facility. This information can also be used during the design phase to evaluate the benefits of installing different types of assets with differing anticipated lifecycles, maintenance requirements and capital costs.
Planned and actual energy use can be linked to the facility as a whole. But, often external and dynamic data is better residing outside of the model, with the option of providing links to the data.
Some of the data to enable a business case to be assessed will not come from your facility model, but by evaluating your data requirements, understanding exactly what questions you require answers for, you develop a clear understanding of what you will need and can then put a plan in place for obtaining the information.
“The employer should specify if information is required to support the maintenance of the health and safety of the users of the Facility such as construction design and management (CDM) Issues.”
This item links closely to the upcoming release of PAS 1192-6 Specification for collaborative sharing and use of structured hazard and risk information for Health and Safety. It also overlaps with many of the other employer purposes. If maintenance and repair information is required, then it would be expected to include maintenance required to ensure regulatory compliance, such as Legionella codes of practice.
“Issues should be related to named assets but might also be related to Attributes, Documents or Impacts.”
Issues can also be interpreted as risks. If something is an issue, changing a lamp at a high level, then it has a risk associated with it. Activities, such as maintenance, should be included elsewhere as an employer purpose. With health and safety and CDM requirements included as risks, with clearly identified preventative measures to reduce or eliminate a risk.
“Jobs covering safety and security procedures and cautions within those safety procedures should be documented for handover.”
A job can also be referred to as tasks. It is possible that a task may have both a health and safety requirements and be maintenance activity. Such as the activities required to reduce the risks associated with Legionella.
Health and safety within any organisation is always (and quite rightly) given the highest priority. As such it makes sense that this purpose should be obligatory. The only scenario where this wouldn’t be obligatory would be if only the register purpose was required.
Every organisation has a duty to remain legal, to do the checks and tasks as required by legislation. Adding this information to your BIM deliverables provides a way of making this task easier.
All life safety systems should be regularly inspected and tested. Life safety systems include fire alarms and fire doors. Testing and inspections for life safety systems are required at least every 6 months. The testing and inspection of all life safety systems can be added as tasks and the tasks can be associated with the specific elements within your model.
Much of this data will be collected through the maintenance and repair data purpose. However, you may not want all maintenance data for all your assets and only want to concentrate on maintaining those assets for which you have a legal duty. In those circumstances collecting such data only through this purpose provides a more focused approach.
Even if you do require all the maintenance data for all you manageable assets, then it’s useful to be able to understand maintenance activities that have a legal duty. This will require an additional data attribute, this could be a simple legal duty yes / no type question (a boolean true-false attribute).
Residual risks are risks that will remain with a facility during its operational life. These are the risks that have not been eliminated during the design development process.
The residual risks associated with a facility should be catalogued throughout the design stages, whilst making every effort to reduce or eliminate the risks.
As a client, you should be aware of the residual risks associated with your new facility. The users and the maintenance team will have to live with and manage the risks throughout the life of the facility. Therefore, being able to understand, track the risks and obtain organisational acceptance for the residual risks is an essential part of developing and delivering a project.
The best way to manage risks through your model is to use the available risk property sets. IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) includes the property set Pset_Risk and PAS 1192-6 proposes an expanded risk property set HSE_Risk_UK.
IFC has a whole set of predefined property sets. Consider a property set as a group of associated data fields. A door, which has a property set (Pset_DoorCommon in IFC terminology) contains predefined parameters such as:
IFC has a predefined risk property set Pset_Risk
The defined parameters for Pset_Risk include:
The risk property set enables you to collate all significant risks and hazards within a model.
In addition, the IFC risk property sets do not have to be linked to only physical objects, they can also be associated with processes (or activities).
The IFC risk property set also allows for mitigating actions (or preventative measures) to be recorded against the risk. With preventative measures identified the risk can be re-assessed (and hopefully eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level).
“Documentation of the intended capacity and utilization of the Facility should be provided as it is required to support comparisons of actual use and utilization and portfolio management.”
Comparisons of planned and actual occupancy and utilization, provide a meaningful way of evaluating the design of a facility compared with the actual use. Prompting questions such as, why do we have a difference and how can we learn from the difference?
As with the IFC Pset_risk property set that can be used for residual risks, we also have an IFC property set that can be used for the management of capacity and utilisation employer purpose. The property set Pset_SpaceOccupancyRequirements includes standard attributes for documenting occupancy – OccupancyType, OccupancyNumber, OccupancyNumberPeak, OccupancyTimePerDay and AreaPerOccupant.
By having this information within your model it allows easy access to the data. The data is provided in a logical way, data about a space, such as the designed occupancy of a space is associated directly with the relevant space. This data can be made even more useful when combining with other data such as types of spaces or locations of spaces and net areas.
Some of the data used within the Management of Capacity and Utilization employer purpose can be useful within other employer purposes. The designed occupancy of a space may also be the maximum occupancy of a space. Occupancy levels may be limited due to many factors including building services (heating, cooling and ventilation), room areas and emergency escape restrictions. These limits may have an effect on how spaces can be used in the future, which links into the Support for Repurposing employer purpose. Maximum occupancy numbers may also have a direct impact on Support for Business Case questions, a building may not be able to accommodate your planned increase in numbers without major alterations.
Occupancy numbers of spaces, tend to be a fundamental building requirement. You need to ensure that each space has the required infrastructure to support the required numbers. By having a digital design brief, which includes occupancy numbers, you can directly and automatically check compliance of the developing design with your requirements.
“Information should be required or suppressed to support the management of the security and surveillance of the Facility and neighbouring or adjacent sites in line with the security requirements set out in the EIR.”
This purpose isn’t to schedule out the designed security measures. And unlike the other employer purposes which are intended to establish what data you do want within your model, this employer purpose provide details on information that shouldn’t be included within your asset model and project data drops.
This employer purpose links into PAS 1192-5:2015 Specification for security-minded building information modelling, digital built environments and smart asset management. PAS 1192-5 requires that you assess the security requirements of your facility and neighbouring facilities. The assessment produces a security classification S1-S4. It ranges from S1 that highest security rating where both your asset and neighbouring assets are classified as being sensitive, through to S4 where neither your asset or neighbouring assets are considered sensitive. The full definition of a sensitive asset is provided within the guidance, but sensitive assets include government buildings and buildings that have an identified security threat, such as transport hubs and large capacity sports venues.
It could be a requirement that information is not included within a general data drop if the information could provide a security risk. Access codes and passwords for accessing IP (network) connected assets may not be included within the full set of data, but included within a subset of data that has controlled distribution.
Covert cameras or any information on CCTV could also be included only within a limited subset of project data. Ensuring that the locations are restricted to a controlled group, reducing the likelihood that the locations will become common knowledge.
It is often difficult to understand what information may be included in your facility data that may have implications on a sensitive adjacent asset. A simple example is site survey information. This will normally contain locations of below ground services. The surveyed services will not be limited to those directly affecting your facility, but will also include all services within the local vicinity. This information may contain valuable information for those wanting to understand data and power supplies to a building. If this information is linked to your facility model and accessible through hyperlinks, this information may become easily accessible. Which could pose a security threat.
“Repurposing of each Space (location) and the whole Facility should be supported with detailed information about the capacity, in terms of areas, volumes, occupancy, environmental conditions and structural load bearing.”
As with many of the other employer purposes, this has overlaps with the others. It overlaps with Management of Capacity and Utilization especially if you require occupancy data.
When we consider repurposing we are looking to obtain data that will assist with future (but unknown) uses for the facility. This isn’t specifically looking at delivering a facility that will have future flexibility. Flexibility requires that a building can be adapted for other uses, the design has been developed with this in mind. This includes using lightweight partitions, services being contained with main service runs and consideration of heating zones and controls.
But, the problem with future flexibility is that unless there is an actual guidance for future uses, where a facility has a planned use for a limited amount of time, this then follows by another planned use (an example of this is some of the 2012 Olympic facilities), then it’s an impossible task to provide a design that caters for every possible option. Education buildings are designed to deliver current educational needs. It’s really difficult to predict future educational needs, due to the influence of government decisions, variable student numbers and changes in demand.
Repurposing by itself doesn’t attempt to provide design solutions. Instead, it provides design information to assist with understanding the capacities of the pre-repurposed facility.
It’s easy to see how having easily accessible structural capacity information could assist in assessing possible new uses for a space. The design of slab will be based on the type of use within a space or the building as a whole. Different types of uses, such as residential, office, education, institution have different allowable live loads. The design of the building may well have limitations on a change of use, especially when considering a use that will impose higher loads.
Data can also be used for a simple assessment of whether a single space can be changed from a 2 person office to a 3 person office. Such a change may have restrictions due to the ventilation within the space, the size of the space (you may have your own restrictions on the minimum area per person) or capacity due to escape route restrictions.
“The employer should require information relating to the Impacts from cost, carbon (CO2e), energy, waste, water consumption or other environmental effects.”
There are a couple of ways to consider this purpose. The design and the data for a facility can be developed to allow for monitoring of impacts. With the design including sufficient metering, sub-metering and access to the data that can then be monitored for anomalies and checked against the loads predicted within the design. But, this purpose could also be used for monitoring embedded carbon and the impact of transport of materials during the delivery phase.
Not all impacts will necessarily be required on all projects. And neither will both the predicted and actual impacts be necessarily required for all projects.
As with all the employer purposes, if an employer purpose is required then both the required data (the attributes, parameters and what they are required for) and the stage at which the data is required should be clearly identified. You need to really specific over what you want and when you want it.
It goes without saying that should a facility require ongoing monitoring of impacts, then for items such as the energy, waste and water, appropriate methods for monitoring, recording and distributing the information needs to be considered. What type of meters will be used, will they need to be manually read or can the data be accessed using via an API? What requires metering, do you require departmental sub-metering, will you be subletting areas of the building?
If you require embedded carbon information you need to be clear what you are measuring and how you want that data provided. A simpler approach could be to assign the BRE green guide ratings to products. If this done from the start of your project it would also allow you to assess the embedded carbon as the project develops and the impact of changes.
It’s also possible to add your own parameters. For example, if you wanted to understand the impact of the transport of materials, you could add data for the location of the source of the materials. This could get complicated if you took everything back to the source of individual components. But, provided you kept it simple, such as the source of final manufacture or assembly, then this would provide a like for like measure, which would enable comparisons between projects.
Another way to consider this employer purpose is that it can provide useful benchmarking information. It enables you to obtain data that will allow objective comparisons through the development of your project, through the life of the facility and with other facilities. This will allow trends to be identified, trends that may enable you to use your facilities in better ways or enable you to develop better future facilities.
What are the effects of outside temperatures, humidity, wind direction and wind speed and energy use?. How do these effects compare between buildings? Does the tested air permeability (sometimes referred to as air tightness) have an effect. These could be seen as obscure questions that cannot be answered or provide any benefit. But, I’m not attempting to tell you what data you should have and what you need to measure. It’s to provide you with ideas of the type of data available and how it can be put to use. If you can evidence that a building with a low air permeability, when compared to one with a higher air permeability, provides you with considerable energy savings you can start to justify the reason why a certain value of air permeability should be included within your design brief.
“Information necessary for the normal operations of the Facility should be provided to support the facility operators and the employer to anticipate costs of operations.”
This employer purpose is intended to enable the forecasting of future costs of a facility.
Data for this employer purpose should be collected from the earliest stage of your project. It has close links to the business case employer purpose. If you want to know the future costs of running your facility, it’s clearly beneficial to have this data as early as possible in the development of the project. Not only does the information feed directly into the business case employer purpose but it also allows you to monitor the design development and understand the long-term costs due to design changes.
The data required for anticipating the costs of operation will be large and varied and not all of it will be able to be included with the model (due to technical reasons, but also due to practical reasons). The data will also become more reliable as the design develops, there will be fewer assumptions as specific products are detailed.
We can consider four broad areas:
The last item, the ongoing costs, are not suitable for adding to your model data set and should be considered separately. That’s not to say that you don’t add consider such items. If you require this data to be collected, then you should understand what you need, why you need it, where the data will come from and who will have responsibility for the data. And the requirements will be detailed in your Organisational Information Requirements (OIR), but, this data will not be managed through your model. The OIR provides the framework and detail of your full data and information requirements, not just your model data.
There are clearly other costs in running a facility such as reactive maintenance costs, due to damage of materials failures. But, these cannot be accurately assessed and are probably best added to a contingency, which will be based upon the requirements of your current facilities and the details of the data also added to your OIR.
We looked at energy costs within the predicted and actual impacts employer purpose and we will look at maintenance activities within the next employer purpose and replacement in within the specific replacement employer purpose. This illustrates how many of the employer purposes are interlinked. Which isn’t a problem, providing that your requirements do not conflict and that you are really clear and detailed on the specifics of what you require.
It’s also worth noting that the data within the model will not usually contain cost information. But, it will contain detailed information to enable you to assess the resources and materials required for tasks or the amount of planned energy required for the facility. This data can then be combined with accurate and current cost data to providing reliable and auditable data for inclusion within your running costs assessments.
“Information on the recommended maintenance tasks, including planned preventative maintenance (PPM), should be provided to support the facility operators to anticipate and plan for costs of maintenance.”
So going right back to the very first employer purpose ‘register’. The assets that you register are those that are available for supplementing with other data, for the other employer purposes. If you require maintenance and repair information for an asset it needs to be registered.
The basic requirement of the maintenance and repair employer purpose is to provide a schedule of tasks. The tasks should provide a comprehensive list of tasks required for planned preventative maintenance (PPM) of your assets.
You may not want the PPM details of every asset. The assets that you do want such information for need to be clearly identified.
The PPM tasks should align with those recommended by the manufacturer or supplier of the asset. Product warranties normally require assets to be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations for the warranty to remain valid. Ensuring that product warranties remain valid is particularly important for high value, mission critical assets such as air handling units and assets that cannot be easily replaced such as cladding and roofing materials. If an asset requires PPM but no details have been provided by the manufacturer then it’s probably a safe approach to follow industry best practice and follow guidance as provided by SFG20.
Tasks are scheduled as either recurring, which apply to the regular PPM requirements of an asset or as one-off tasks, which can be used for commissioning tasks or planned end of life replacement tasks.
For each task, additional information, such as risks and resources can also be provided. Risks are closely related to health and safety and its requirements should be listed within the support for compliance and regulatory responsibilities employer purpose. Whilst resources will link into the operations employer purpose.
“Information on the reference or expected replacement service life and costs should be available to the facility operators and to the employer to anticipate the costs of replacement. Recycling of the physical assets should be supported with detailed information relating to the principal constituent materials.”
We are getting close to the end of the employer purposes, just one more after this one.
As with many of the other employer purposes, when looking at the data for the anticipated life of an asset and the cost of replacing an asset it is closely related to both the operations and the support for business questions employer purposes.
To accurately forecast the operational cost of a facility data is required from various sources. The assets that will need replacing within any given period and the cost of replacing those assets should be included in any assessment.
The data for the expected service life and replacement costs on the surface is relatively simple. Expected life will be just a set period of time and the replacement cost of an asset will consist of a numerical value. This alone will provide useful data. However, the replacement cost data will need clarifying, this could be the direct cost of the asset at the time of installation (and the time at preparing the asset model) or it could be a predicted cost based upon an inflation index compounded over the expected life.
Additional data can be added for activities. Such as activities that will be required to remove and reinstall an asset.
“Recycling of the physical assets should be supported with detailed information relating to the principal constituent materials.”
By identifying the constituent materials within an asset, the current recycling and disposal requirements can be compared with the primary materials. As recycling requirements are subject to regular change, this is a more robust approach than associating recycling requirements directly with individual asset types.
“Information on the recommended decommissioning Jobs should be provided to support the facility operators to anticipate and plan for end-of-life costs.”
Finally, the last of the employer purposes and I don’t have a great deal to say on this one.
This expands upon the replacement employer purpose. It adds activities and processes for the end of life of the whole facility. Costs can then be associated with the activities. This also links to the support for business questions employer purpose. The assessment of whether a facility is sustainable should also include the costs of decommissioning a facility.
This employer purpose could be used for ensuring that you have robust information to enable decommissioning and disposal to take place in the most effective way possible. For example, do you have sufficient information to enable you to produce a schedule of the constituent parts of your facility. This will require that items such as the structure are modelled in a suitable way. If you look at the structural frame, does the model contain duplicate or overlapping elements. Removing such errors will produce more accurate quantities.It will also require that all your constituent parts are classified or named in a consistent way, this will ensure that all parts of the frame such as steelwork or concrete can be correctly grouped together.
Residual risk items relevant to the end of life decommissioning such as post-tensioned slabs should also be available for this employer purpose. For some facilities, there may be no residual risks relevant to the end of life decommissioning, whereas other facilities such as laboratories may contain considerable risks and hazards.
Your data will never be perfect and at the start, you may find that much of the data you collect will not work for you or isn’t available in a workable format. But, as with everything you need to start somewhere and most things that provide long-term value take effort.
By taking the first steps to develop your organisational data requirements you will have taken an important first step. The first step will enable you to test your data, start using in beneficial and provide something tangible for your organisation to provide objective feedback.
Each project that you undertake will enable you to refine your process, to obtain better, more relevant data. The longer that you hold back on the first steps the more difficult it will be to catch up with organisations that have already been through the most difficult part of the learning curve.
When establishing your organisational information requirements. All departments need to be involved. This isn’t a task that can be delegated to one person. Of course, someone needs to take the lead and you need someone responsible. But, the input from your whole organisation is really important. You may miss out on collecting data which could have massive value because no one explained what was required and why it was required.
And it isn’t just a matter of blankly listing out a whole schedule of information required. Each department should look at what they currently do, what information they use to enable them to undertake their tasks and perform their activities. The tasks and activities should be critically evaluated, can they be done differently in a better way and is there a piece of data that will enable them to do those tasks more efficiently or to do tasks that will provide more value.
Ian Yeo, BIMsense email@example.com
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